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Red Hot Chili Peppers are an American rock band formed in Los Angeles, California in 1983. For most of their career, the group's lineup has consisted of vocalist Anthony Kiedis, guitarist John Frusciante, bassist Michael "Flea" Balzary, and drummer Chad Smith. The band's varied musical style has fused traditional rock with various elements of funk, punk rock, alternative rock, rap, heavy metal, and psychedelic rock. They hold the record for the most number one singles on the Billboard Modern Rock Chart, with eleven, and a record of 81 weeks at #1 on the chart.<sup class="reference"></sup> They have sold over 61 million albums worldwide, and were ranked #30 in VH1's 100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock.
In addition to Kiedis and Flea, the group originally featured guitarist Hillel Slovak and drummer Jack Irons. After Slovak died of a heroin overdose in 1988, Irons resigned, and they were replaced briefly with several different people. The new drummer, D. H. Peligro soon introduced Flea to guitarist John Frusciante. Drummer Chad Smith was recruited few weeks before the recording of Mother's Milk, the band's fourth album, began.
The band's fifth album, 1991's Blood Sugar Sex Magik, was a critical success and sold over twelve million copies. Frusciante grew increasingly uncomfortable with the band's success and left the group in 1992. The band employed Dave Navarro (of Jane's Addiction) for their subsequent album, 1995's One Hot Minute. It failed, however, to match the critical acclaim of Blood Sugar Sex Magik and was a commercial disappointment, selling less than half of its predecessor. Creative differences between Navarro and the rest of the band caused him to be fired from the band not long after.
Meanwhile Frusciante, in his absence, developed a severe drug addiction and almost lost his life. Nevertheless, in 1998 he completed rehabilitation and rejoined the band at Flea's request. The reunited foursome returned to the studio to record 1999's Californication, which would go on to sell fifteen million units worldwide, becoming their most successful album to date. It was followed up three years later with By the Way, an album showing a more subdued and melodic side to the band. In May 2006, the group released the double album Stadium Arcadium.