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Brazil (IPA: /bɹə.zɪl/), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: Brasil or República Federativa do Brasil, is the largest and most populous country in Latin America, and the fifth largest in the world in both area and population. Its territory covers 8,514,877 km² between central South America and the Atlantic Ocean, and it is the eastern-most country of the Americas.
Brazil is the world's 6th largest economy in terms of purchasing power and the 10th largest economy at market exchange rates.
Brazil is a political and economic leader in Latin America. However, social and economic problems prevent it from becoming an effective global power.Brazilian foreign policy has generally reflected multilateralism, peaceful dispute settlement, and nonintervention in the affairs of other countries.
While the Northeast region has the worst economic indicators nationwide, many cities in the South and Southeast enjoy First World socioeconomic standards.
It borders Venezuela, Suriname, Guyana and the department of French Guiana to the north, Uruguay to the south, Argentina and Paraguay to the southwest, Bolivia and Peru to the west, and Colombia to the northwest. The only South American countries not bordered by Brazil are Ecuador and Chile. The Brazilian coastline covers 7,367 km to the east. Numerous archipelagos are part of the Brazilian territory, such as Penedos de São Pedro e São Paulo, Fernando de Noronha, Trindade e Martim Vaz and Atol das Rocas.
A tropical climate is predominant. In the south of the country, subtropical climate prevails . Brazil is cut through by the Equator and Tropic of Capricorn. It is home to the world´s largest varied fauna and flora and extensive natural resources.
Brazil was colonized by Portugal from 1500 until its independence in 1822. The republican system has been adopted since 1889, however its parliament dates back to 1824, when its first constitution was ratified. Its current Constitution defines Brazil as a Federal Republic. The Federation is formed by the indissoluble association of the States, the Federal District, and the Municipalities. There are currently 26 States and 5,564 Municipalities.
The Brazilian population tends to concentrate along the coastline in large urban centers. While Brazil has one of the largest populations in the world, population density is low and the inner continental land has large areas of low population.It is a multiracial country composed of European, Amerindian, African and Asian elements. The official language is Portuguese,and it is the only Portuguese-speaking country in the Americas. Catholicism is the predominant religion, though Protestant communities have experienced significant growth in the last decades. Brazil has the largest Roman Catholic population in the world.
During the '90s Brazil revolutionized its economy by opening its market for a free trade , implementing a large scale privatization program, and expanding the large and well-developed agricultural , mining, manufacturing, and service sectors; Brazil's economy outweighs that of all other South American countries, and is expanding its presence in world markets.
According to the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, Brazil has the ninth largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity (PPP) and tenth largest at market exchange rates. Brazil has a diversified middle income economy with wide variations in development levels. Most large industry is agglomerated in the Southern and South East states. The Northeast is the poorest region of Brazil, but it has attracted new investments in infrastructure for the tourism sector and intensive agricultural schemes.
BrazilFoundation channels its resources to not-for-profit organizations, without political affiliations, operating in five key areas: education, health, human rights, citizenship and culture. We select projects for support that distinguish themselves for their ability to transform social conditions in Brazil and serve as models for other social programs in the country.
Partnerships with other philanthropic entities allow BrazilFoundation to function as a bridge between a growing international donor community and selected projects in Brazil. The foundation considers proposals presented by non-governmental organizations from all regions of the country. According to its by-laws, BrazilFoundation, does not fund proposals from individuals. With technical and financial support from BrazilFoundation, recipient organizations can maximize their ability to create social change.